- Python 3.x
- Python 2.x
Discover and update the Python-specific properties in Administration > General Settings > Languages > Python.
Handling project Python version
Python code is analyzed by default as compatible with python 2 and python 3. Some issues will be automatically silenced to avoid raising False Positives. In order to get a more precise analysis you can specify the Python versions your code supports via the
The accepted format is a comma-separated list of versions having the format "X.Y"
sonar.python.version=2.7, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9
This parameter can be used in the sonar-project.properties file or the SonarScanner CLI command.
The Python analyzer parses the source code, creates an abstract syntax tree (AST), and then walks through the entire tree. A coding rule is a visitor that is able to visit nodes from this AST.
As soon as the coding rule visits a node, it can navigate its children and log issues if necessary.
Writing a plugin
Custom rules for Python can be added by writing a SonarQube Plugin and using Python analyzer APIs. Here are the steps to follow:
Create a SonarQube plugin
- Create a standard SonarQube plugin project.
- Attach this plugin to the SonarQube Python analyzer through the
- Add the dependency to the Python analyzer.
- Add the following line in the sonar-packaging-maven-plugin configuration.
- Implement the following extension points:
- RulesDefinition and PythonCustomRuleRepository, which can be implemented by a single class, to declare your custom rules.
- Declare the RulesDefinition as an extension in the Plugin extension point.
Implement a rule
- Create a class that will hold the implementation of the rule, it should:
- define the rule name, key, tags, etc. with Java annotations.
- declare this class in the
To get started a sample plugin can be found here: python-custom-rules.
To explore a part of the AST, override a method from
PythonVisitorCheck. For example, if you want to explore "if statement" nodes, override the
visitIfStatement method that will be called each time an ifStatement node is encountered in the AST.
When overriding a visit method, you must call the super method in order to allow the visitor to visit the children of the node.
To explore a part of the AST, override
PythonSubscriptionCheck#initialize and call
SubscriptionCheck.Context#registerSyntaxNodeConsumer with the
Tree#Kind of node you want to visit. For example, if you want to explore "if statement", you should register to the kind
Tree#Kind#IF_STATEMENT and then provide a lambda that will consume a
SubscriptionContext to act on such nodes.
From the check, an issue can be created by calling the
SubscriptionContext#addIssue method or
To test custom checks you can use method
PythonCheckVerifier#verify. Don't forget to add the testkit dependency to access this class from your project :
You should end each line having an issue with a comment in the following form:
Comment syntax is described here.
- Importing external issues (Pylint, Bandit, Flake8)
- Test coverage and execution (the Coverage tool provided by Ned Batchelder, Nose, pytest)
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